Management. Different workers obtained variable results and none of the tested cultivars showed high degree of resistance [137, 138]. 3) Each piece should be 2.5-5 cm long and 20-25 g in weight. Le et al. The lesions enlarge and adjacent lesions coalesce to form necrotic areas. is the best biocontrol agents for soft rot. It is not like bacterial rots, the soft rot caused by fungus does not produce offensive odors. Ramakr. These include Eumerus marginatus (Grims) (syrphid fly), Euxesta quadrivittata (Macq.) Ginger crops on this infested soil severely affected and completely lost to the disease [16]. They were analyzed by the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averaging using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA amplicons. Ginger Leaf Spot or Phyllosticta Blight Symptom: This disease affects leaves, occurring in the form of spots that are yellow to white, spindleshaped or long and round and 2 to 5 cm long. The affected pseudo stem and rhizome when pressed gently extrudes milky ooze from the vascular strands. Soft rot found in all the ginger growing countries, reported as the most dangerous and destructive disease of ginger which can reduce the production by 50–90%. Yella et al. It is an olive green caterpillar with a distinct black head. [101]. The larvae apparently feed on decaying plant material; pupation occurs in the soil. Screening 650 ginger accessions by Bhai et al. Exposing ginger seed pieces to hot air at 75% RH until their temperatures attained 49°C for 30 and 60 min and 50°C for 30 min, resulted in minimal injury to the hosts. Indrasenan and Paily [79] identified Maran cultivar resistant against P. aphanidermatum. Infected plants produce shriveled tubers and brown ground tissue. populations with lower disease incidence [86]. Shanmugan et al. The affected leaves become shredded and may suffer extensive desiccation (Figure 4). Biotype III is restricted to ginger plant and its weeds whereas biotype IV infects a wide host range including potato, tomato, eggplant, Capsicum frutescens, Zinnia elegans and Physalis peruviana. Due to this, crop is severely affected without destroying the rhizomes. Diameter of gall is 3.3 cm. pentzii) grown continuously than the soil is treated with fumigant or left as bare fallow. Dipping the rhizomes with imazalil or prochloraz (0.8 g a.i/liter) and then storing at 10°C gave good protection against Botryodiplodia, Aspergillus, Diplodia, Fusarium, Rhizoctonia and Pythium [145]. Yellowing of leaves and rotting of rhizome due to soft rot disease (source: Vikaspedia). Yellowing starts on the margins of the lower leaves which gradually spreads and cover the entire leaves. It is caused by the plant parasitic nematode, Meloidogyne sp. Young ginger plants are very susceptible to sunburn when the temperatures exceed 90°F due to high light intensity. The production of ginger is being affected by biotic and abiotic factors. To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. Control measures During the daytime, adults are usually found hiding in loose soil or among dead leaves. During storage, rhizomes soft are affected by fungi [71] and bacteria. Several rhizobacteria were reported to possess strong antagonistic activity on P. myriotylum growth [60]. Nematode infestation aggravates rhizome rot disease. The above ground shoot is erect and reed-like with linear leaves that are arranged alternately on the stem. The post-harvest losses are affected by various biotic and abiotic causes. Cortex of the rhizomes becomes lumpy and cracked during the severe infection. diffusa (L.) Hook. Thw., Boerhavia repens L. var. Spotted leaves occur when fungal spores in the air find a … Eleven species of Pythium are responsible for the soft rot diseases in ginger are identified so far. The presence of Mancozeb was observed at 120th days of storage. The collar region of the pseudo-stem shows pale translucent brown colour which becomes water soaked, due to destruction of parenchymatus tissues. Rhizome treatment with copper oxychloride followed by neem extract, suppresses the soft rot disease [88]. Following a single approach is not ideal way to a have soft rot resistant. Of two major clusters formed, one was dominated by F. oxysporum and the other by F. solani. Later the lesion enlarges, coalesce and cause the stem to rot and collapse [34]. From the soil, this bacterium enters into the ginger plant through the roots and rhizomes via the openings where lateral roots emerge or through wounds caused while handling and by root-knot nematodes or parasitic insects [24]. Rhizomes packed in PVC film preserve the weight but has high chance of disease [150]. Licensee IntechOpen. The pathogen prefers warm wet weather and outbreaks typically occur in the early summer months most symptoms of the pathogen do not occur until late summer. Virus produces mosaic disease in 18 cultivars of ginger and 23 other plant species [4]. Planting the disease free rhizomes is the best method to manage the disease [71]. The fungus also produces resting structures (Chlamydospores) in the decomposing tissues of infected rhizomes. China, India, Nepal and Thailand are the major producers of ginger in the world. Mixing organic matter with poultry manure and sawdust enriched the soil microbial populations in the ginger growing soils [73] and enhance the soil carbon levels and water infiltration rates, support the growth and yield of ginger [51, 76]. The rhizome has a discoloured appearance before rot sets in the fi bro vascular strands are not affected. [130] observed that incidence of leaf spot disease was less for the plants grown under partial shade or as intercrop in coconut. Further, sulfur nanoparticles with fungicides like bavistin, ridomil gold, sunflex and streptocycline were evaluated for the inhibition of the fungus showed that sulfur nanoparticles with bavistin with high inhibition. The adults are 7–9 mm long and more prevalent at higher elevations, apparently requiring cooler temperatures for survival. ginger germplasms to Phylosticta leaf spot. Leaf Spot Diseases of Strawberry 3 may be produced on young leaves when warm and humid conditions are present. Yellows disease and leaf spot disease are also the serious problems of gingers, because they have become more widely spread and caused enormous loss of ginger yield , . From Australia, this virus is distributed to a number of countries which import ginger from Australia. Planting healthy seed rhizomes is the best way to avoid this disease [71, 119]. were also reported to be associated with yellow disease ([95, 96, 97]. Milky bacterial exudates ooze out from the cut end (Figure 2). Phoma leaf spot by Phoma exigua Desm. When one portion is complete, it moves and makes another fold. The secondary spread of the disease can also take place through irrigation water and by mechanical means. Nematodes in the soil increase the incidence of wilt in ginger [15]. Treating the rhizome with aureofungin (0.02%) and Benomyl (0.2%) before the Storage, control the disease [148]. The plants which are infested by the disease stand persistently and do not collapse. Butler on 1907, recorded this disease first time in Surat district of Gujarat, India [33]. R. solanacearum is a soil-borne disease spreads from the soil by adhering to hands, boots, tools, vehicle tires and field equipment; through water during irrigation and rainfall; and through infected ginger rhizomes [23]. The infected plants can be easily pulled out from the rhizomes, the infection from the collar spreads to the rhizome gradually. Soil solarization with biological control methods is beneficial to plant growth and antagonistic to many pathogens like fungi, bacteria, nematodes, and arthropods. Factors like air temperature, relative humidity and rainfall influence the incidence of disease to an extent of 85.5% [129]. In Indonesia, the race 1 of biovar III is responsible for bacterial wilt in ginger [14]. Phytosanitation is needed when the symptoms of soft rot appear in the ginger plantations. Biotype III from India causes the wilt in ginger [11]. Sharma et al. and Tithonia diversifolia A. The damage on the foliage is characteristic, being peppered or shot with holes, or more or less skeletonized. Highest reduction of the incidence of disease is observed with spraying chlorothalonil [127]. Ramakr. Insects, Diseases, and Other Plant Problems: Thrips, slugs. © 2006–2019 C–DAC.All content appearing on the vikaspedia portal is through collaborative effort of vikaspedia and its partners.We encourage you to use and share the content in a respectful and fair manner. Kadam et al. Fungus is the next major pathogen causes rhizome rot, soft rot, Sclerotium rot and yellows disease. How? Crop rotation with groundnut-mustard was effective in reducing the population of M. incognita. The importance of these insects in ginger production remains to be determined. On standard media, the fungus forms pycnidia having 100–270 μm diameter bearing hyaline, unicellular, oblong, big guttulate spores measuring 3.7–7.4 × 1.2–2.5 μm [125]. Our team is growing all the time, so we’re always on the lookout for smart people who want to help us reshape the world of scientific publishing. The infective stage of the nematode is the second stage juveniles, which have lightly sclerotized cephalic framework. Kumar et al. Kanware HT (1974). GCFV is mechanically transmitted only to ginger but not like ginger mosaic virus, transmitted by Myzus persicae, Pentalonia nigronervosa and Rhopalosiphum maidis or R. padi. (Figure 8). Meloidogyne sp., Radopholus similis and Pratylenchus sp. Trichoderma spp. Dark streaks are observed in the vascular tissues of the affected pseudo stems. The middle portion of the lamina remains green while the margins become yellow. Rhizome solarization for 2–4 h on ginger seeds reduce the bacterial wilt (90–100%) at 120th day of planting, and further with discontinuous microwaving (10-s pulses) at 45°C reduces the wilt by 100% [25]. Source: NIPHM and Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage. rustica, N. glutinosa, Elettaria cardamomum, Curcuma longa, and C. aromatica. Science and Culture 42: 176-178. Macrophoma stem canker Macrophoma theicola. Yellows disease is serious problems of ginger causes stem and rhizome rot. Treating the rhizomes with mancozeb, ziram, guazatine, propineb and copper oxychloride for 30 min effectively control this pathogen [47, 48]. Chinese rose beetle (source: Vikaspedia). Post-harvest losses in ginger are a serious concern. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is earliest known oriental spices, belonging to the family, Zingiberaceae. Two cultivars: SG 666 [121] and Kerala local [122] are reported to have disease resistant. Indian Phytopathol. Often the epidermis is left unscathed, keeping the rotten flesh contained within until a crack allows the ooze to leak out and infect others around it. The bacteria from the harvested infected plant to others placed with it and also through the insects. Growing the crop under the partial shade reduce the severity of Phyllosticta leaf spot. The middle of the spots turns thin and papery. It feeds the base of the pseudo stem, roots and newly formed rhizomes. 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