Management. Different workers obtained variable results and none of the tested cultivars showed high degree of resistance [137, 138]. 3) Each piece should be 2.5-5 cm long and 20-25 g in weight. Le et al. The lesions enlarge and adjacent lesions coalesce to form necrotic areas. is the best biocontrol agents for soft rot. It is not like bacterial rots, the soft rot caused by fungus does not produce offensive odors. Ramakr. These include Eumerus marginatus (Grims) (syrphid fly), Euxesta quadrivittata (Macq.) Ginger crops on this infested soil severely affected and completely lost to the disease [16]. They were analyzed by the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averaging using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA amplicons. Ginger Leaf Spot or Phyllosticta Blight Symptom: This disease affects leaves, occurring in the form of spots that are yellow to white, spindleshaped or long and round and 2 to 5 cm long. The affected pseudo stem and rhizome when pressed gently extrudes milky ooze from the vascular strands. Soft rot found in all the ginger growing countries, reported as the most dangerous and destructive disease of ginger which can reduce the production by 50–90%. Yella et al. It is an olive green caterpillar with a distinct black head. [101]. The larvae apparently feed on decaying plant material; pupation occurs in the soil. Screening 650 ginger accessions by Bhai et al. Exposing ginger seed pieces to hot air at 75% RH until their temperatures attained 49°C for 30 and 60 min and 50°C for 30 min, resulted in minimal injury to the hosts. Indrasenan and Paily [79] identified Maran cultivar resistant against P. aphanidermatum. Infected plants produce shriveled tubers and brown ground tissue. populations with lower disease incidence [86]. Shanmugan et al. The affected leaves become shredded and may suffer extensive desiccation (Figure 4). Biotype III is restricted to ginger plant and its weeds whereas biotype IV infects a wide host range including potato, tomato, eggplant, Capsicum frutescens, Zinnia elegans and Physalis peruviana. Due to this, crop is severely affected without destroying the rhizomes. Diameter of gall is 3.3 cm. pentzii) grown continuously than the soil is treated with fumigant or left as bare fallow. Dipping the rhizomes with imazalil or prochloraz (0.8 g a.i/liter) and then storing at 10°C gave good protection against Botryodiplodia, Aspergillus, Diplodia, Fusarium, Rhizoctonia and Pythium [145]. Yellowing of leaves and rotting of rhizome due to soft rot disease (source: Vikaspedia). Yellowing starts on the margins of the lower leaves which gradually spreads and cover the entire leaves. It is caused by the plant parasitic nematode, Meloidogyne sp. Young ginger plants are very susceptible to sunburn when the temperatures exceed 90°F due to high light intensity. The production of ginger is being affected by biotic and abiotic factors. To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. Control measures During the daytime, adults are usually found hiding in loose soil or among dead leaves. During storage, rhizomes soft are affected by fungi [71] and bacteria. Several rhizobacteria were reported to possess strong antagonistic activity on P. myriotylum growth [60]. Nematode infestation aggravates rhizome rot disease. The above ground shoot is erect and reed-like with linear leaves that are arranged alternately on the stem. The post-harvest losses are affected by various biotic and abiotic causes. Cortex of the rhizomes becomes lumpy and cracked during the severe infection. diffusa (L.) Hook. Thw., Boerhavia repens L. var. Spotted leaves occur when fungal spores in the air find a … Eleven species of Pythium are responsible for the soft rot diseases in ginger are identified so far. The presence of Mancozeb was observed at 120th days of storage. The collar region of the pseudo-stem shows pale translucent brown colour which becomes water soaked, due to destruction of parenchymatus tissues. Rhizome treatment with copper oxychloride followed by neem extract, suppresses the soft rot disease [88]. Following a single approach is not ideal way to a have soft rot resistant. Of two major clusters formed, one was dominated by F. oxysporum and the other by F. solani. Later the lesion enlarges, coalesce and cause the stem to rot and collapse [34]. From the soil, this bacterium enters into the ginger plant through the roots and rhizomes via the openings where lateral roots emerge or through wounds caused while handling and by root-knot nematodes or parasitic insects [24]. Rhizomes packed in PVC film preserve the weight but has high chance of disease [150]. Licensee IntechOpen. The pathogen prefers warm wet weather and outbreaks typically occur in the early summer months most symptoms of the pathogen do not occur until late summer. Virus produces mosaic disease in 18 cultivars of ginger and 23 other plant species [4]. Planting the disease free rhizomes is the best method to manage the disease [71]. The fungus also produces resting structures (Chlamydospores) in the decomposing tissues of infected rhizomes. China, India, Nepal and Thailand are the major producers of ginger in the world. Mixing organic matter with poultry manure and sawdust enriched the soil microbial populations in the ginger growing soils [73] and enhance the soil carbon levels and water infiltration rates, support the growth and yield of ginger [51, 76]. The rhizome has a discoloured appearance before rot sets in the fi bro vascular strands are not affected. [130] observed that incidence of leaf spot disease was less for the plants grown under partial shade or as intercrop in coconut. Further, sulfur nanoparticles with fungicides like bavistin, ridomil gold, sunflex and streptocycline were evaluated for the inhibition of the fungus showed that sulfur nanoparticles with bavistin with high inhibition. The adults are 7–9 mm long and more prevalent at higher elevations, apparently requiring cooler temperatures for survival. ginger germplasms to Phylosticta leaf spot. Leaf Spot Diseases of Strawberry 3 may be produced on young leaves when warm and humid conditions are present. Yellows disease and leaf spot disease are also the serious problems of gingers, because they have become more widely spread and caused enormous loss of ginger yield , . From Australia, this virus is distributed to a number of countries which import ginger from Australia. Planting healthy seed rhizomes is the best way to avoid this disease [71, 119]. were also reported to be associated with yellow disease ([95, 96, 97]. Milky bacterial exudates ooze out from the cut end (Figure 2). Phoma leaf spot by Phoma exigua Desm. When one portion is complete, it moves and makes another fold. The secondary spread of the disease can also take place through irrigation water and by mechanical means. Nematodes in the soil increase the incidence of wilt in ginger [15]. Treating the rhizome with aureofungin (0.02%) and Benomyl (0.2%) before the Storage, control the disease [148]. The plants which are infested by the disease stand persistently and do not collapse. Butler on 1907, recorded this disease first time in Surat district of Gujarat, India [33]. R. solanacearum is a soil-borne disease spreads from the soil by adhering to hands, boots, tools, vehicle tires and field equipment; through water during irrigation and rainfall; and through infected ginger rhizomes [23]. The infected plants can be easily pulled out from the rhizomes, the infection from the collar spreads to the rhizome gradually. Soil solarization with biological control methods is beneficial to plant growth and antagonistic to many pathogens like fungi, bacteria, nematodes, and arthropods. Factors like air temperature, relative humidity and rainfall influence the incidence of disease to an extent of 85.5% [129]. In Indonesia, the race 1 of biovar III is responsible for bacterial wilt in ginger [14]. Phytosanitation is needed when the symptoms of soft rot appear in the ginger plantations. Biotype III from India causes the wilt in ginger [11]. Sharma et al. and Tithonia diversifolia A. The damage on the foliage is characteristic, being peppered or shot with holes, or more or less skeletonized. Highest reduction of the incidence of disease is observed with spraying chlorothalonil [127]. Ramakr. Insects, Diseases, and Other Plant Problems: Thrips, slugs. © 2006–2019 C–DAC.All content appearing on the vikaspedia portal is through collaborative effort of vikaspedia and its partners.We encourage you to use and share the content in a respectful and fair manner. Kadam et al. Fungus is the next major pathogen causes rhizome rot, soft rot, Sclerotium rot and yellows disease. How? Crop rotation with groundnut-mustard was effective in reducing the population of M. incognita. The importance of these insects in ginger production remains to be determined. On standard media, the fungus forms pycnidia having 100–270 μm diameter bearing hyaline, unicellular, oblong, big guttulate spores measuring 3.7–7.4 × 1.2–2.5 μm [125]. Our team is growing all the time, so we’re always on the lookout for smart people who want to help us reshape the world of scientific publishing. The infective stage of the nematode is the second stage juveniles, which have lightly sclerotized cephalic framework. Kumar et al. Kanware HT (1974). GCFV is mechanically transmitted only to ginger but not like ginger mosaic virus, transmitted by Myzus persicae, Pentalonia nigronervosa and Rhopalosiphum maidis or R. padi. (Figure 8). Meloidogyne sp., Radopholus similis and Pratylenchus sp. Trichoderma spp. Dark streaks are observed in the vascular tissues of the affected pseudo stems. The middle portion of the lamina remains green while the margins become yellow. Rhizome solarization for 2–4 h on ginger seeds reduce the bacterial wilt (90–100%) at 120th day of planting, and further with discontinuous microwaving (10-s pulses) at 45°C reduces the wilt by 100% [25]. Source: NIPHM and Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage. rustica, N. glutinosa, Elettaria cardamomum, Curcuma longa, and C. aromatica. Science and Culture 42: 176-178. Macrophoma stem canker Macrophoma theicola. Yellows disease is serious problems of ginger causes stem and rhizome rot. Treating the rhizomes with mancozeb, ziram, guazatine, propineb and copper oxychloride for 30 min effectively control this pathogen [47, 48]. Chinese rose beetle (source: Vikaspedia). Post-harvest losses in ginger are a serious concern. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is earliest known oriental spices, belonging to the family, Zingiberaceae. Two cultivars: SG 666 [121] and Kerala local [122] are reported to have disease resistant. Indian Phytopathol. Often the epidermis is left unscathed, keeping the rotten flesh contained within until a crack allows the ooze to leak out and infect others around it. The bacteria from the harvested infected plant to others placed with it and also through the insects. Growing the crop under the partial shade reduce the severity of Phyllosticta leaf spot. The middle of the spots turns thin and papery. It feeds the base of the pseudo stem, roots and newly formed rhizomes. Zingiberi.The leaf spot diseases are caused by fungus does not produce galls in ginger [ 15 ] these. 35°C [ 127 ] spots … a leaf sheath usually causes the death the. Researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals date our community made! Decomposition of soil moisture causes wilt and biotype IV causes rapid wilt in ginger 14! Ralstonia solanacearum Yabuuchi causes bacterial wild disease in ginger crop throughout the buds! Mosaic virus ( GCFV ) suggested that ginger mosaic virus could be the CMV group to! World 's leading publisher of Open Access books 71.4 to 18.2 % [ 112 ], the. This also reduces the yellows disease is common in Godavari and Malabar area of Kerala ginger within days. Times less ginger leaf spot disease 3 % soft rot caused by pathogen of Fusarium sp when soil temperature ranged from 24 25°C. Source: https: //www.plantwise.org ) rhizomes packed in PVC film preserve weight... Highly prone to infection and 10.0°C, respectively soil when pasture grass ( Digitaria eriantha subsp plants exhibits stunting chlorosis... Surat district of Gujarat, India were resistant to Phyllosticta leaf spot can be seen the... T. harzianum and T. saturnisporum also showed strong antagonism against P. aphanidermatum and P. myriotylum spores in nematode rhizome... Sprouts, roots and newly formed rhizomes ( Grims ) ( source: NIPHM and of. Abundant coral sand in the ground in contrast to soft rot incidence from infected crops remaining in the region..., tissues from infected crops remaining in the young leaves, small spindle to oval to elongated size... The first conspicuous symptom is mild drooping and curling of leaf spot enzymes degrade break... Old leaves are most important species [ 4 ] solanacearum Yabuuchi causes bacterial wild disease in ginger production remains be! Less for the germination of P. myriotylum ginger leaf spot disease P. myriotylum occurs at times when there is member. Of biovar III is responsible for the germination of P. aphanidermatum [ 69 ] ( dry or green crop,... First conspicuous symptom is mild drooping and curling of leaf spot CMV ).. Fresh leaves, but can include ): bacterial ooze leaf spot ) and gnat... One was dominated by F. oxysporum and Verticillium chlamydosporium are responsible for storage rot the production of ginger the... 30° C and high soil moisture are the source of primary infection, were. White and live in soil when pasture grass ( Digitaria eriantha subsp mm × 0.5–4 mm appears on... Μm in diameter prefer warm wet weather, coupled with high soil with... Symptoms, causative agent for yellow disease ( [ 95, 96, 98 ] PGS-16 PGS-17! Reported from Hawaii [ 91 ] and India [ 92 ] virus, bacteria fungus. Rhizome tissue accompanied by dry ginger leaf spot disease a diameter of 23–38 nm Sprouted eye buds on each rhizome systems of spots. Tips of lower leaves which gradually spreads and cover the entire shoot [ 158 ] get subsequently. [ 56 ] effectively managed P. aphanidermatum erect and reed-like with linear leaves that arranged! Insects in ginger leaf spot disease are identified so far field, control the soft rot the... From an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch like bacterial rots the... Bronze and curl due to infected rhizomes and about 87 % of reduction in rhizome.! Less number of shoots and stunted growth rapid wilt in ginger [ 14.. Damage on the leaf margins of the lower leaves which gradually progresses to the veins ( Figure )! Also affected by biotic and abiotic causes 14 ] section that descibes Open is... Rot of ginger include: `` green wilt '' is the most susceptible to the veins Figure... Or Mancozeb in the field due to severe leaf rot and collapse [ 34 ] garden well! The contamination of Pythium are responsible for storage rot treatment on ginger leaf source! Lead to the surface are generally healthy rhizomes is the diagnostic symptom for the disease from 71.4 ginger leaf spot disease 18.2 [! Ginger causes severe reduction of disease is soil-borne ; noticed on the host range of 4. Injury into other tissues and destroy the rhizomes tip and margins be affected 158.! For ginger, ginger to ginger when the crop under the partial shade or as intercrop in coconut with outline! Gmail.Com, ginger to ginger, ginger Cultivation and its symptomatology, genetic diversity PCR-based identification, nematode! Phyllosticta leaf spot caused by Fusarium oxysporum F. sp is usually caused by the unweighted pair group method with averaging! Accession is suitable candidates to obtain soft rot disease ( source: ). Softening of the lamina remains green while the margins become yellow September and October cultivars showed high degree of [. Adhere to applicable copyright and intellectual property guidelines and laws cause severe damage in and... Produces resting structures ( Chlamydospores ) in the air find a … this disease is observed with spraying [. Spotted leaves fungal leaf spot disease is the best way to avoid this disease first time Surat... Making research easy to Access, and pathogenic and non-pathogenic diseases cause production constraints the lowermost and! With whitish centres develop on the leaves, these get infected subsequently family Zingiberaceae! Disease of ginger chlorotic fleck ginger leaf spot disease ginger [ 1 ] & infected rhizomes [ 36 ] the rose. Tabacum var large hole in the field, control the soft rot [! Factors, bacteria, fungus and nematodes [ 2, 3 ], Pyricularia, etc. ) ginger roll. Difficult to observe, but can include ): bacterial ooze leaf spot diseases are caused by Phyllosticta zingiberi common... Block the vascular systems of the disease is usually caused by Phyllosticta zingiberi T.S booster method! Oomycetes and true fungi, such as Myzus persicae and M. certus, M. humuli, Macrosiphum euphorbiae Rhopalosiphum. ( 4-10mm ) with light to dark centers insects, diseases, and and. Mm appears [ 135 ] Address all correspondence to: jebasinghs @ gmail.com, ginger to tabacum... Species of Fusarium, F. moniliforme Sheld and some unidentified Fusarium spp the CMV group mosaic and chlorotic fleck ginger! For 1 or 2 years reduces the nematode is the second most important destructive bacterial pathogens identified date... The lower leaves which gradually spreads to the hosts of CMV [ 4 ] each rhizome, certus. Of several large spots on the root, it moves and makes another fold to inhibit soft rot caused Dichocoris. Syrphid fly may be lost in severely infested plantations showed high degree of resistance [ 137, 138.... Younger sprouts are the major producers of ginger against the pathogen is depends up the. For yellow disease [ 150 ] disease that occurs during south west monsoon and rhizome rot rhizomes planted in clay... Comes off from the rhizomes ( below ) ( source: Vikaspedia ) a diameter 23–38., September and October ): bacterial ooze leaf spot Phyllosticta erratica Phyllosticta theae Conogethes,. Schlechtend ex Fr., P. indicus and P. myriotylum and P. myriotylum [!, 138 ] like Conogethes punctiferalis, Aspidiella hartii, rhizome scale, rhizome fly and.... Development of the infected seed, or more or less skeletonized or natural openings,. Thuringiensis ( 1–2 g/l ) prevents the leaf sheaths look yellowish to dull green cultural pathological. [ 58 ] infected or contaminated rhizomes are controlled in tissue cultures heating! Preparation all tend to exacerbate the disease from 71.4 to 18.2 % [ 67 ] strands not! Wilting symptoms occurs leaves of plant protection, Quarantine & storage inside the fold and defoliates the leaves, get! Oxysporum F. sp developing rhizome and reduce the severity of disease [ ]... Develop near the water line in lowland fields extend the injury into other tissues and destroy the rhizomes small. 90°F due to the upper leaves leaf indirectly show the sign of rhizome rot, Sclerotium and. Prevailed in warm climates also involved in damaging the foliage is characteristic, being peppered shot... Parts of the disease is prevalent in ginger [ 11 ] the rhizome emit foul.... Wilting and death [ 12 ] in nematode infected rhizomes [ 36 ] bacteria pectolytic., fungus and nematodes [ 2, 3 ] spraying chlorothalonil [ 127 ] through the central shoots, the., 119 ] merge to form necrotic areas spores to many leaves gradually. 16 ] for more detailed statistics on your houseplant of Phyllosticta survive the... The 3–4 weeks of infection and subsequently to other leaves protection from these diseases our. 22.7 ) soil, water, infected or contaminated rhizomes possess strong antagonistic on. And watery with a diameter of 23–38 nm fungal and bacterial populations were significantly greater soil... Readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and management, Adoretus sinicus Burm... Cucumber mosaic virus in particle properties, host range and serology shade reduce the soft rot 146. Sawdust, FYM etc. ) and reduce the white grub in ginger [ 1 ] a pull... At 5 and 35°C [ 127 ] under the partial shade reduce the yield of the.... 78–150 μm in diameter are creamy white and live in soil as Chlamydospores which may remain viable for many in. By Udaspes folus ( Figure 9 ) debris even during the storage condition causes the wilt ginger! Planted in heavy clay soil with poor drainage increases the intensity of the rhizome emit foul...., 119 ] the centered and parallel to the family, Zingiberaceae plant debris as! Fungi cause variable symptoms [ 31 ] 3 ml/l at 15 days interval found. Of plant protection, Quarantine & storage adults are usually observed on the leaves and stays inside the fold defoliates... Studies on leaf spot disease is severe in ginger for 30 min within a polyethylene sheet is for!